Medically reviewed by Dr. Rabeya Afroz Shomi
What are Kidney Stones?
A urinary calculus may be a crystalline and hard mineral material that gets formed within the kidney or in our tract . Kidney stones are a standard explanation for hematuria (blood in urine) and sometimes cause severe pain within the abdomen, groin or within the flank. Kidney stones also are called renal calculi. Urinary stones, mostly develop in patients who are between 20-49 years and other people who have suffered quite one attack of this illness are always susceptible to further stone development.
People with chronically elevated acid levels also are more susceptible to the formation of acid related kidney stones. Pregnant women, though the numbers are few, sometimes develop kidney stones. Factors which will contribute to urinary calculus formation during pregnancy include a slowing of the passage of urine, thanks to decreasing bladder capacity due to her enlarged uterus and increase within the progesterone levels in her body.
Often dehydration from reduced fluid intake, over time, results in the formation of kidney stones. This illness is more common in men than in women. The condition of getting a stone or multiple stones within the kidney is understood as nephrolithiasis. However, having stones in other locations within the tract is understood as urolithiasis.
What are the primary signs of kidney stones?
Kidney stones may develop to anyone regardless of the age. it's a stone-like collection of minerals and salt which are made from acid or calcium. The stones develop inside the kidney and visit other body parts. The sizes of urinary calculus s vary and if the kidney stone is left untreated, it'll become large in size and develop more complications and it'll occupy the whole kidney.
Smaller stones won’t cause any symptoms until it reaches the ureters. the primary signs of kidney stones are a pain within the belly, back or groin side, burning sensation or pain during urination, an urgency to urinate, foul smell urine, nausea and vomiting, chills and fever, oliguria, blood traces within the urine.
What are risk factors for kidney stones?
Dehydration is that the prime explanation for urinary calculus and it forms thanks to lack of fluid within the kidney. So, drinking insufficient water increases the danger factors of kidney stones.
It is known that obesity plays a big job in kidney stones. it'd cause single and recurrent episodes of kidney stones.
Patients that suffer from chronic tract infections may have chances of forming larger stones within the kidney. These are commonly called infection or struvite stones.
Metabolic conditions like renal tubular acidosis, hyperparathyroidism, cystinuria, may increase the danger of kidney stones.
Obstruction within the kidney or ureters, horseshoe kidney, Ureterocele, Calyceal diverticulum, reflux , Ureteral stricture, and Medullary sponge kidney are other risk factors of kidney stones.
Diet plays a key role within the development of kidney stones and it's been found that high-sodium foods have the tendency to develop renal stones.
Which foods cause kidney stones?
Perhaps the foremost ideal approaches to take care of a strategic distance from kidney stones is to avoid exorbitant salty nourishments, meats, and other creature protein.
To avoid calcium oxalate foods because the calcium in your pee combines with oxalate and forms such stones.
Avoid taking high-calcium oxalate foods like chocolate , Sweet potatoes, Almonds and cashews, Baked potatoes with skin, french-fried potatoes , Raspberries, and okra.
Eating salt raises the measure of calcium within the urine. Hence limit your fast foods, condiments, canned foods, and packaged meats.
Farthest point creature protein, for instance , cheddar, fish, meat, pork, eggs as they'll raise the chances of most kinds of kidney stones.
Nutrient C has the inclination of creating the body produce oxalate. So, take only 500 mg of vitamin C each day.
How kidney stones are diagnosed?
Diagnosis of kidney stones may be a controversial procedure. Usually to verify the diagnosis of this illness, imaging tests are performed on the patients. just in case of medical emergency non-contrast CT scans are done on the patients, since this will be done rapidly and it helps to rule out other causes for flank and abdominal pain.
However, within the recent times, because it is believed that CT scan exposes the patients to significantly more radiation, ultrasound scans along side plain abdominal X-ray is employed for diagnosing kidney stones. When patients are placed on medication, it's been observed that tiny stones pass out naturally through the urine. However, for larger stones (beyond 9-10mm) lithotripsy is completed to interrupt up the larger stones into small pieces, with the assistance of shock waves, in order that they will pass out through the urogenital system.
What are the treatment options for kidney stones?
According to the sort of stone, treatment is provided to the patient. Generally, the person is suggested to drink a minimum of eight glasses of water to extend the urine flow. people that suffer from severe dehydration, nausea or vomiting could also be advised on intravenous fluids.
Kidney stones removal:
Narcotic and pain killers are advised for pain and to treat infection antibiotics are advised.
In extracorporeal blast wave lithotripsy, sound waves are wont to break the massive stones in order that they will easily move to ureters and therefore the same are often urinated easily. local anaesthesia is run to the patient during the procedure. The patient may suffer from bruising or bleeding after the procedure. an equivalent are often treated with pain killers or other necessary medicines.
Ureteroscopy is another procedure during which the stuck stone within the bladder or ureters are often removed with an instrument called ureteroscope.
Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy may be a surgery and during this procedure, the surgeon removes the stones through alittle incision within the back.
What are the ways for the prevention of kidney stones?
There are some ways through which you'll prevent kidney stones: Best thanks to prevent kidney stones are staying hydrated all the time as dark urine indicates strong dehydration and it makes the calcium deposit as stones.
Drink a minimum of 8-12 glasses of water to remain faraway from the risks of renal stones. Intake of excess sodium causes water retention that easily results in dehydration.
Avoid taking baked foods, fried foods, MSG , soda niter to mention bye to renal stones.
If you're an alcoholic, reduce the intake of it because alcohol leads cells to extend fluid output. This ultimately causes dehydration.
Caffeine has the tendency of speeding up metabolism. It simultaneously causes dehydration. Adults are recommended to require only 4 cups of coffee and any drinks that contain caffeine.
Taking vitamins and minerals like animal oil , pyridoxine supplements, potassium citrate, vitamin B-6 helps in refraining from urinary calculus formation.
How to prevent kidney stones naturally?
To prevent kidney stones naturally following things are often done:
Avoid stone-forming foods: Rich in oxalate products like Beets, rhubarb, spinach, chocolate, and tea and rich in phosphate foods like colas can develop kidney stones. If you already suffer from kidney stones either avoid these things or minimize the number of intake.
Limit animal protein: Eating abundance animal protein, for instance , red meat, fish, poultry, eggs, and fish support the acid level and it's going to prompt kidney stones development diet helps in diminishing citrate levels in urine accordingly averts kidney stones arrangement.
Get enough calcium: Oxalate levels are often rise when your diet has little calcium that eventually causes renal stones. it's better to take care of the essential level of calcium either from foods or from calcium supplements.
What is the diet chart for kidney stones?
If you suffer from a urinary calculus , try the subsequent that might give the simplest results:
Kidney stones diet:
Vegetables: Bitter gourd, ridge gourd, snake gourd, calabash , ladies finger, ivy gourd, tinda, green leafy and vegetables
Pulses: Kidney beans, Moong dal, Chickpeas, soybeans, and Masoor dal
Cereals: Oatmeal, Brocken wheat, Quinoa rice , Ragi
Fruits: Pears, Grape, Custard Apple, Watermelon, Apple and Oranges
Meat, Fish and Egg: pigeon breast , Swordfish, Tuna, Cod, Lean Meat, Salmon, Tilapia
Sugar: 1 Tsp/ day
Milk and Milk products: Paneer, Skim milk, Yoghurt pot cheese
Oil: 1.5 Tbsp/ day (Mustard Oil, Olive oil, vegetable oil , Rice bran Oil)
What are the precautions for kidney stone?
1. Choose more fresh and frozen vegetables and fruits, milk, yogurt and whole grains, small portions of fish, unseasoned meat and unsalted seeds and nuts. If your renal stone comes under calcium oxalate, then limit the quantity of nuts intake every day as they're rich in oxalate.
2. Aim a minimum of 12 cups of fluid intake daily. People with cystine stones should aim a minimum of for 16 cups. If you're not wont to drinking this much water or fluid, attempt to increase each cup day by day.
3. don't add sugary drinks like fruit drinks, tea or coffee while adding your fluid intake as they'll increase the danger of kidney stones.