Treatment for achondroplasia mainly includes addressing the signs and symptoms rather than completely curing the disease. Treatment methods include consultations, medications, surgery and dietary measures. Certain conditions caused due to achondroplasia are addressed by consulting separate therapist or experts. For instance, malocclusion and dental crowding due to maxillary hypoplasia can be treated by orthodontic treatment done by an orthodontist, treatment for speech problems, tonsillectomy, adenoidectomy, tracheostomy, etc are all done by specific experts like speech therapist, otolaryngologist, etc. Medications are provided for treatment of the short stature which can augment the height of the patient to some extent.
In this growth hormone injection is used to accelerate growth which is quite prominent in the first year of treatment. It is recommended to start the therapy at an age as young as 1 to 6 years. Human growth hormones like Genotropin, Humatrope, and Nutropin are used in treating short stature by stimulating skeletal muscle, organs, and linear bone growth. With growth hormones, it is also possible to stimulate erythropoietin that increases the mass of red blood cells. Surgery can also be helpful to some extent wherein especially the orthopedic problems are addressed. People with achondroplasia develop abnormalities like thoracolumbar kyphosis, craniocervical stenosis, angular deformities of lower extremities, lengthening of short extremities and spinal stenosis which are often treated by surgical procedure.
Lengthening of limbs or the upper and lower extremities are done using several procedures like using monolateral frames for lengthening of osteotomy callus, lengthening of tibia, humerus, and femur can also be done as staged procedures, neurosurgery that involves narrowing of the foramen magnum is indicated in case the patient suffers progressive head enlargement. Since obesity can be an issue in an achondroplastic patient, nutritional counseling is needed in several cases and dietary therapy must be started early.